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PQQ, NADH, CoQ10 are the key constituents, along with Carnosine, N-Acetyl-L-Carnitine, Alpha-lipoic acid Vitamin B6.
Alpha-lipoic acid, often abbreviated ALA, is a coenzyme for several enzyme systems, two of which are involved in the generation of energy. ALA is also used as an antioxidant. It is found in many foods and widely used as a dietary supplement.
Each capsule of Go3+ contains 200 mg ALA
Molecular structure of ALA
Carnosine is made up of two aminoacids naturally produced in the body. This dipeptide is highly concentrated in brain and muscle tissues. Carnosine acts primarily as a powerful antioxidant and has demonstrated a number of anti-ageing effects.
Each capsule of Go3+ contains 100 mg Carnosine.
Molecular structure of Carnosine
Pyridoxal 5-phosphate (P5P) serves as a coenzyme in many metabolic reactions in the body, and facilitates the release of stored energy from muscle and liver tissues. P5P is the active form of Vitamin B6 which is widely distributed in both animal and plant foods.
Each capsule of Go3+ contains 2 mg P5P.
Molecular structure of Vitamin B6
Food intake greatly enhances the absorption of Coenzyme Q10 from the small intestinal tract.
Good manufacturing practices (GMP) are the practices required in order to conform to the guidelines recommended by agencies that control authorization and licensing for manufacture and sale of food, drug products, and active pharmaceutical products. These guidelines provide minimum requirements that a pharmaceutical or a food product manufacturer must meet to assure that the products are of high quality and do not pose any risk to the consumer or public.
MitoCondrika, or Go 3+ as it is more commonly referred to, contains no animal byproducts. The capsules are 100% vegetarian and made up of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose.
The bottles carry the Vcaps® label of certification.
The capsules also contain E171 (Titanium dioxide), a naturally occurring and widely used white coloring agent.
In mitochondrial function, CoQ10 is an essential component of the Electron Transport Chain through which chemical energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is formed. Almost all of the body’s energy is generated this way (1). CoQ10 is also a powerful anti-oxidant (1). There are thousands of published articles about the biological properties and medical benefits of CoQ10 supplementation.
One of the more recent studies looked at the long-term effects of daily intake of 300 mg CoQ10 in chronic heart failure patients. The authors of the study conclude that CoQ10 is not only safe and improves symptoms, but that major cardiovascular events including death were significantly reduced in comparison to placebo (2).
2. Mortensen SA, Rosenfeldt F, Kumar A, et al. Q-SYMBIO Study Investigators. The effect of coenzyme Q10 on morbidity and mortality in chronic heart failure: Results From Q-SYMBIO: A Randomized Double-Blind Trial. JACC Heart Fail. 2014 Dec;2(6):641-9.
Each capsule of Go3+ contains 300 mg CoQ10
Molecular structure of CoQ10
Mitochondria are the powerhouses of the cell. Younger people have in excess of 2,000 per cell, but as we get older they:
- diminish in number, and
- those that remain are less efficient.
- All cells in our bodies are powered by energy.
- Mitochondria are responsible for creating more than 90 percent of cellular energy. Brain, liver and muscle cells are examples of cell types that need plenty of energy to function normally.
- The energy generated is in the form of ATP, often referred to as the energy currency of the cell
The inherent chemical energy in ATP is then used to fuel virtually all biological processes in our cells.
- More and more scientific data show that degenerative diseases and ageing are intimately linked to mitochondrial dysfunction…
…and this is where PQQ and Go3+ can make a difference:
via PQQ’s dual property of:
- protecting mitochondrial DNA from the oxidative damage caused by free radicals, and
- promotion of the biogenesis of new mitochondria.
Studies suggest that PQQ delivers a wide range of benefits, from cardiovascular health to mental function.
Each capsule of Go3+ contains 20 mg Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ)
Molecular structure of PQQ
There are several dietary supplements on the market, especially in the US, containing PQQ in the range 10-20 mg. However, none of them have the unique Go 3+ formulation.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide is found in all living cells. This coenzyme is involved in making energy in the body through involvement in redox reactions whereby electrons are carried from one reaction to another. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide thus exists in two forms, an oxidized and reduced form abbreviated as NAD+ and NADH respectively (1).
In this way the energy stored in our food is transferred to mitochondrial NADH which when oxidized to NAD+ generates the energy-carrying molecule adenosine triphosphate, abbreviated ATP (2). The chemical energy captured in ATP is then used to fuel other cellular processes such as metabolic reactions and muscular movements.
- Rich PR (2003). “The molecular machinery of Keilin’s respiratory chain”. Soc. Trans. 31 (Pt 6): 1095–10.
Molecular structure of NADH