Vitamin B6 (pyridoxal 5-phosphate)
Pyridoxal 5-phosphate (P5P) serves as a coenzyme in many metabolic reactions in the body, and facilitates the release of stored energy from muscle and liver tissues. P5P is the active form of Vitamin B6 which is widely distributed in both animal and plant foods.
Vitamin B6 also plays a role in cognitive development through the biosynthesis of neurotransmitters and in maintaining normal levels of homocysteine, an amino acid in the blood (2). Furthermore, this vitamin is involved in gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis, immune function (for example, it promotes lymphocyte and interleukin-2 production), and haemoglobin formation (2).
A recent double-blind, randomized controlled trial in 94 women found that 80 mg vitamin B6 taken daily over the course of three cycles was associated with statistically significant reductions in a broad range of PMS symptoms, including moodiness, irritability, forgetfulness, bloating, and, especially, anxiety (3). The potential effectiveness of such vitamin in alleviating the mood-related symptoms of PMS could be due to its role as a cofactor in neurotransmitter biosynthesis (4). Although it shows promise for alleviating PMS symptoms, more research is needed before drawing firm conclusions.
P5P has also been studied with mixed results n patients with cardiovascular disease, cognitive decline and cancer.
1. Institute of Medicine. Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes: Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: National Academy Press; 1998.
2. Mackey A, Davis S, Gregory J. Vitamin B6. In: Shils M, Shike M, Ross A, Caballero B, Cousins R, eds. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. 10th ed. Baltimore, MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2005.
3. Kashanian M, Mazinani R, Jalalmanesh S. Pyridoxine (vitamin B6) therapy for premenstrual syndrome. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2007;96:43-4. [PubMed abstract].
4. Bendich A. The potential for dietary supplements to reduce premenstrual syndrome (PMS) symptoms. J Am Coll Nutr 2000;19:3-12. [PubMed abstract].
Each capsule of Go3+ contains 2 mg P5P.