Nutrients Generating the “+”
Nutrients such as Carnosine is made up of two amino acids (beta-alanine and l-histidine) naturally produced in the body and available in red meat. This dipeptide is highly concentrated in brain and muscle tissues. Carnosine acts primarily as a powerful antioxidant and has demonstrated a number of anti-ageing effects.
Carnosine levels in the body decline with age. Muscle levels decrease 63 % between ages 10 to 70, which may account for and/or be partly responsible for the reduction in muscle mass and function seen in aging humans (1). Carnosine enables the heart muscle to contract more efficiently through improved regulation of intracellular calcium (2). Furthermore, it has been shown that muscle levels of carnosine correlate with the maximum life spans of animal species (3).
1. Stuerenburg HJ, Kunze K. Concentrations of free carnosine (a putative membrane-protective antioxidant) in human muscle biopsies and rat muscles. Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 1999.29:107-13.
2. Zaloga GP, Roberts PR, Black KW, et al. Carnosine is a novel peptide modulator of intracellular calcium and contractility in cardiac cells. Am J Physiol. 1997;272(1 Pt 2):H462-8.
3. Hipkiss AR, Michaelis J, Syrris P, et al. Strategies for the extension of human life span. Perspect Hum Biol. 1995; 1:59-70.
Each capsule of Go3+ contains 100 mg Carnosine.
Molecular structure of Carnosine
Vitamin B6 (pyridoxal 5-phosphate)
Pyridoxal 5-phosphate (P5P) serves as a coenzyme in many metabolic reactions in the body, and facilitates the release of stored energy from muscle and liver tissues. P5P is the active form of Vitamin B6 which is widely distributed in both animal and plant foods.
Vitamin B6 also plays a role in cognitive development through the biosynthesis of neurotransmitters and in maintaining normal levels of homocysteine, an amino acid in the blood (2). Furthermore, vitamin B6 is involved in gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis, immune function (for example, it promotes lymphocyte and interleukin-2 production), and haemoglobin formation (2).
A recent double-blind, randomized controlled trial in 94 women found that 80 mg vitamin B6 taken daily over the course of three cycles was associated with statistically significant reductions in a broad range of PMS symptoms, including moodiness, irritability, forgetfulness, bloating, and, especially, anxiety (3). The potential effectiveness of vitamin B6 in alleviating the mood-related symptoms of PMS could be due to its role as a cofactor in neurotransmitter biosynthesis (4). Although vitamin B6 shows promise for alleviating PMS symptoms, more research is needed before drawing firm conclusions.
P5P has also been studied with mixed results n patients with cardiovascular disease, cognitive decline and cancer.
1. Institute of Medicine. Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes: Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: National Academy Press; 1998.
2. Mackey A, Davis S, Gregory J. Vitamin B6. In: Shils M, Shike M, Ross A, Caballero B, Cousins R, eds. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. 10th ed. Baltimore, MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2005.
3. Kashanian M, Mazinani R, Jalalmanesh S. Pyridoxine (vitamin B6) therapy for premenstrual syndrome. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2007;96:43-4. [PubMed abstract].
4. Bendich A. The potential for dietary supplements to reduce premenstrual syndrome (PMS) symptoms. J Am Coll Nutr 2000;19:3-12. [PubMed abstract].
Each capsule of Go3+ contains 2 mg P5P.
Molecular structure of Vitamin B6
Alpha-lipoic acid, often abbreviated ALA:
- is a vital nutrient to cellular energy production by acting as a coenzyme in the citric acid cycle through which energy stored in nutritients captured as chemical energy by the mitochondria in our cells (1-3), and
- produces potent antioxidant actions that neutralizes the damage caused by free radicals (4-6).
ALA is a naturally occuring compound produced in the body and found in many foods from both plants and animals.
- Chem Biol Interact. 2001 Nov 28;138(2):189-98.
- Neurochem Res. 2007 Sep;32(9):1552-8
- Drug Metab Rev. 1998 May;30(2):245-75.
- J Appl Physiol. 1999 Apr;86(4):1191-6.
- Chem Biol Interact. 2006 Nov 7;163(3):192-8.
- Nutrition. 2007 Jan;23(1):76-80.
Each capsule of Go3+ contains 200 mg ALA
Molecular structure of ALA
N-Acetyl-L-Carnitine as a nutrient
N-Acetyl-L-Carntine, abbreviated ALCAR, is an amino acid that is naturally produced in the body. as a nutrient it helps the body produce energy in the mitochondria.
The transfer of fat to energy is one of the main functions of N-Acetyl-L-Carnitine. Fatty acids are transported into the cells, where they are burned to release energy by being transported to the mitochondria (2). The long branched chain fatty acid molecules can only pass through the inner mitochondrial membrane through esterification with carnitine.
Deficiency of carnitine can lead to decreased ability of the tissue to utilize long chain fatty acids as energy (2).
N-Acetyl-L-Carnitine has recently received considerable medical attention as a result of its favourable effects in cardiovascular disease. A recent study by the Mayo Clinic concluded: ”Compared with placebo or control, L-carnitine is associated with a 27% reduction in all-cause mortality, a 65% reduction in VAs , and a 40% reduction in anginal symptoms in patients experiencing an acute myocardial infarction. Further study with large randomized controlled trials of this inexpensive and safe therapy in the modern era is warranted” (3).
N-Acetyl-L-Carnitine is a vital nutrient for health. The body naturally produces it, and the main external sources are red meat and dairy products.
1. Available at: http://pharmaxchange.info/press/2013/10/activation-and-transportation-of-fatty-acids-to-the-mitochondria-via-the-carnitine-shuttle-with-animation/
2. Longo N, Amat di San Filippo C, Pasquali M. Disorders of carnitine transport and the carnitine cycle. Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet. 2006;142C(2):77-85.
3. Available at: http://www.mayoclinicproceedings.org/article/S0025-6196(13)00127-4/full text. Accessed May 1, 2013.
Each capsule of Go3+ contains 50 mg N-Acetyl-L-Carntine